What is globalization? Positive and Negative Effects of Globalization?

Governments and businesses can implement environmental and social standards to ensure sustainable economic development. This can include implementing environmental regulations to reduce pollution and waste, promoting sustainable resource use, and protecting workers’ rights. Governments can invest in infrastructure such as roads, ports, and airports to facilitate trade and attract foreign investment. This can help to improve the efficiency and competitiveness of local businesses, increase trade flows, and create employment opportunities. Globalization has created new opportunities for countries to trade and invest across borders. This has led to increased economic activity and higher levels of economic growth.

It has also allowed new businesses to compete with old incumbents, thereby lowering the barriers to entry and evening out the playing field. Because the process has fueled further international trade, the trade sector has increased employment rates through competitive and productive exportation and importation activities of trade participants. These programs include specific initiatives on sustainable development, biodiversity, climate change, and global environmental change, among others. Furthermore, aside from fostering international cooperation across the global research community, these programs have encouraged interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary research. Of course, because economic globalization has intensified international trade, it is also instrumental in intensifying conspicuous consumption and hyperconsumption.

The changes in climate are now a serious threat to humanity and the future of the world, all because of globalization. Globalization is an economic concept that works by easing the movement of goods and people across borders. To ease the process, all investments, trade, and markets get integrated, and barriers get minimized or eliminated, to ensure different nations enjoy the flow of goods and services. Note that in the Philippines, several white-collar and blue-collar professionals have decided to work in foreign countries due to better career opportunities that provide better salaries.

The welcoming of people from various backgrounds and civilizations has resulted in the creation of new cultures, thus leading societal growth. The phenomenon called “race to the bottom” has been considered as an offshoot of globalization. In their attempt to maximize profitability, several businesses establish operations and presence in regions or countries with less stringent environmental regulations. In addition, over the years, different research institutions and business organizations across the world have developed and deployed numerous science-based and technology-based solutions to address environmental problems.

  1. It is the main reason why the quality of goods and services improve as well as why the prices drop.
  2. For many centuries there has been a wide gap between these groups, a gap that seemed to widen every year.
  3. The positive effects of globalisation include economic advancement and the reduction in poverty, creation of jobs, greater access to technology, cultural diversity and tolerance, emergence of new social movements and greater transparency.
  4. So-called non-governmental organizations bring together people unaffiliated with the government and can be nationally or globally focused.

The 2008 economic crisis led many politicians to question the merits of globalization. In 2007, worldwide capital inflows accounted for more than 20% of the world’s GDP. In a 2017 piece for the Milken Institute Review, Rodrik notes that current policies “produce[s] losers as well as winners.” For instance, workers are left with a less stable labor market.

Economies of Scale

Table 2 outlines various strategies that can be employed to enhance vaccination rates. The challenge of achieving the national vaccination target persists despite the widespread distribution of vaccines because of hesitancy. Before the pandemic, Indonesia experienced a significant degree of vaccine hesitancy, which led to suboptimal vaccination rates for illnesses such https://1investing.in/ as measles and polio. The persistent distrust towards vaccines has had a lasting impact on the nation’s approach to addressing the epidemic caused by COVID-19. The introduction of COVID-19 vaccines in Indonesia was initially met with skepticism and reluctance among specific population segments because of apprehensions regarding the safety and efficacy of the vaccines.

Diversification of Industries:

The Indonesian government has adopted various approaches to enhance vaccination, including collaborating with the national military. Although vaccination cannot be imposed, partnering with the national military can promote vaccination significance and expand coverage to certain facilities such as schools, workplaces, and conflict-affected regions. Moreover, by June 2021, Indonesia had only secured around 80 million doses of Sinovac and AstraZeneca, covering 40 million of the most at-risk citizens, which accounted for only 22% of the total population eligible for vaccination [78]. Therefore, the perception of unfair distribution caused by vaccine nationalism has further eroded trust in vaccines and increased hesitancy in Indonesia. As wealthier countries receive a larger share of vaccines, people in Indonesia may question the effectiveness and fairness of the vaccination efforts.

Vaccination hesitancy is a significant threat to public health, as it can lead to disease outbreaks and even the reappearance of diseases considered to have been eradicated [3, 4]. The privatization of industries owned by the state has enabled the emerging markets positive and negative effects of globalization to be successful. Most of the companies are increasing the consumer demand through extension and expansion of their value chain to international levels. As a result, the positive effects of globalization are expressed by the rising transactions across the borders.

SOCIETY & CULTURE

Despite including vaccines in the National Immunization Program (NIP), coverage has not met WHO and UNICEF targets, with childhood immunization decreasing during the COVID-19 pandemic. COVID-19 vaccination has also experienced hesitancy, slowing efforts to end the pandemic. As a result, the positive effects are visible, since global competition leads to products of high quality. The enhanced quality of both products and services are based on production approaches of customer demands and customer services. Richards involving 189 countries revealed that economic globalization has affected the security of global supply chains due to the overexploitation of land, water, and energy resources. Countries that participate in international trade exhibit greater exposure to resource risks.

To further promote vaccination equity and increase uptake, the Indonesian government has introduced a phased vaccination program that prioritizes healthcare workers, the elderly, the general and at-risk population, and children [89]. The system was formerly known as PeduliLindungi but is now called SATUSEHAT and is managed by the Ministry of Health of Indonesia. This challenge is particularly pertinent in rural regions, where access to accurate information may be limited. As previously mentioned, socioeconomic barriers, such as income and education levels, can contribute to vaccination inequities in Indonesia [52].

Effects of globalisation on politics

Correspondingly, in Indonesia, a country where approximately 87% of the population is Muslim, concerns have arisen over the use of non-halal components obtained from pork in vaccine formulations. These concerns have the potential to increase vaccine hesitancy in the country [43]. In the social context, previous studies showed that cultural and religious beliefs may also play a role in vaccine hesitancy [39].

Similarly, in Indonesia, the lack of trust in the government has been triggered by various factors, including past conflicts in certain provinces [29] and the government’s response to the COVID-19 situation [30]. This lack of trust is exacerbated by existing disparities in healthcare access and delivery, which could lead people to be hesitant about getting the vaccine due to concerns about unequal distribution and difficulty of access [31, 32]. Misinformation and conspiracy theories are widely recognized as critical drivers of vaccine hesitancy. False information about the safety and efficacy of vaccines can spread quickly and easily through social media and other channels, which leading to fear and skepticism about vaccination [22, 23]. One prominent example of vaccine misinformation is the claim that the measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine causes autism.

Causes Fluctuation of Prices

Despite the government’s initiatives to improve vaccination rates, there remains a substantial gap in our understanding of the factors influencing vaccine acceptance and hesitancy [26, 57]. In the Indonesian context, there have been no studies specifically dedicated to assessing or exploring hesitancy regarding routine vaccination using the 5Cs approach. However, a recent study conducted by Sujarwoto et al. [21], which investigated COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy in a district in Indonesia, revealed that respondents held low levels of confidence and complacency beliefs about the vaccine. Furthermore, the study identified more general sources of mistrust within the community, particularly concerning health providers and vaccine developers.

Ultimately, this vaccine hesitancy contributes to a decline in vaccination rates (Fig. 4). In addition, vaccine hesitancy may be influenced by socioeconomic variables such as low income, educational attainment, and limited healthcare accessibility [44]. Individuals with lower education levels may have a restricted understanding of vaccines and their advantages, rendering them more vulnerable to misinformation [46]. In addition, inadequate healthcare accessibility may impede individuals from obtaining vaccinations on time, while restricted access to precise health information may result in misconceptions or skepticism regarding vaccines [47]. Beside misinformation and conspiration theories, lack of trust in government and healthcare institutions could impact the vaccine hesitancy. For instance, the case of Tuskegee Syphilis Study, which was conducted by unethically on African American men, has resulted in Black communities [28] enduring mistrust of government and healthcare institutions.

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